University of the Visayas - Journal of Research <p>University of the Visayas Journal of Research is the official research journal publication of the University of the Visayas. This is a multidisciplinary publication to provide avenue for researchers to publish their research work. The multidisciplinary research journal caters to Empirical, Theoretical, Review, Methodologic and Philosophical articles.&nbsp;UVJOR subjects the author’s scholarly work to the scrutiny of the scholars with appropriate expertise based on Quality and Significance of Contribution to Knowledge and/or Practice, Technical Appropriateness and Ethical Consideration.</p> en-US <h2><a href="">Copyright Policy and Declaration of Previous Publication</a></h2> <p>&nbsp;</p> (Ms. Mary Ann A. Aranas) (Brian A. Vasquez, PhD) Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Antibacterial activity of formulated Psidium guajava (guava) hand sanitizer gel on Staphylococcus aureus <p>The primary purpose of the study was to detect the bactericidal potential of a formulated guava hand sanitizer gel on <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>.&nbsp; The efficacy of this formulation was tested against a bacterial strain through the well-diffusion method. Inhibition of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> growth was compared across two independent variables: (a) the type of sanitizer (experimental guava hand sanitizer gel vs. three other commercial brands); and (b) the type of alcohol utilized (experimental guava hand sanitizer gel vs. isopropyl vs. ethyl alcohol). The dependent variable which is the reduction of <em>S. aureus</em> growth rate, was measured by the zone of inhibition in each of the bacterial strains. Experimental design was used to measure the bactericidal potential of guava hand sanitizer gel. Through a two-way ANOVA, no significant difference was found between groups of commercial hand sanitizers and the formulated guava hand sanitizer gel (Brand A with a zone of inhibition of of 9.7 mm, Brand B with 9.3 mm, Brand C with 9 mm, and the new formulation with a zone of inhibition of 9 mm). These findings reveal that the reference standard commercial product (Brand A) with a highest zone of inhibition manifests a similar antibacterial property with the formulated guava hand sanitizer gel as revealed by bacterial reduction rate. In conclusion, the formulated hand sanitizer possesses antibacterial potential to inhibit the multiplication of S. aureus. Further studies should be conducted on other therapeutic activity parameters and the elucidation of structure for the active constituent with potential as bactericidal.</p> Emma A. Yaun, Brian Anonat Vasquez Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 A modified paperfuge technique in evaluating anemia in phenylhydydrazine-induced ICR <p>Anemia is a common observation in several diseases in humans and animals. This condition is evaluated through the blood using parameters, including the packed cell volume (PCV).&nbsp; However, quick diagnosis might take longer, especially in resource limited areas, as blood samples still need to be processed in the laboratory. In this experimental study, a modified <em>paperfuge</em> technique was evaluated to assess anemia in an animal model. A total of 16 ICR mice were used. After animal acclimatization for ten days, persistent anemia (hemolytic) was induced in nine mice by administering phenylhydrazine every other day for three times. Only distilled water was used in the control mice. After seven days, blood was extracted from the mice. Complete blood count using a species specific hematology machine was performed. PCV was further evaluated using the centrifuge machine and the modified <em>paperfuge</em> technique. Results using the hematology machine showed that the phenylhydrazine-induced mice had lower red blood cell count (x̄= 4.26 x 10^6/µL, SD=0.93) and PCV (x̄=32.5, SD=7.5) than the red blood cell count (x̄=5.26 x 10^6/µL, SD=1.1) and PCV (x̄=36.5, SD=5.8) of the control mice. PCV readings from the three methods were strongly correlated with the RBC count. On the other hand, PCV readings from the paperfuge technique were also strongly and significantly correlated with the centrifuge (R=0.99, p=0.000) and hematology machine (R=0.89, p=0.000) results. Further analysis revealed that there was no significant difference observed between the PCV readings of the CBC machine, the centrifuge and the modified <em>paperfuge</em> (treatment group: p=0.39, control group: p=0.09). Results suggest that the modified <em>paperfuge</em> technique can be reliable in measuring PCV to evaluate anemia. Further studies are recommended to compare results in anemic animals and humans.</p> Deepakchandran Koutharapu, Johanne P. Nuevarez, Adrian P. Ybañez Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of HIV and AIDS among call center agents in Cebu City, Philippines <p><strong>Confirmed cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have continued to increase in the Philippines, with Region VII (Central Visayas) consistently among the top five regions with the highest disease incidence. Knowledge on HIV and AIDS is important in preventing its spread because lack of its awareness can expose individuals to high-risk behaviours. Among the identified high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS exposure are the call center agents. In this study, the knowledge on HIV/AIDS and profile of call center agents in Cebu City were assessed. A total of 388 respondents (selected by snowball sampling) working as call center agents at IT Park, Cebu City were requested to participate in the study. Subsequently, only 289 completed the questionnaire. Most respondents were aged 24 to 29 years old (53%), single (85.8%), female (59.2%), college graduate (67.5%), and were earning a half-month salary of Php 3,000 to 13,124.99. More than majority (61.2%) had a high level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS (x̅: 78.3%, SD 12.9). Statistical analyses revealed that age and educational attainment were found to be correlated with the knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p-values &lt; 0.05). Results also implied that call center agents who are younger (below 24 years old) and who have not graduated from college should be targeted for knowledge enhancement on HIV/AIDS. </strong></p> Arielle R. Vidal, Patrick O. Alfeche, Samuel Jie C. Quisil, Erlinda Y. Posadas, Lourdes C. Quisumbing, Adrian P. Ybañez Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing cognition, health behavior, reasoned action, and planned behavior on HIV/AIDS among openly homosexual men <p><strong>This study investigated the cognitive, health behavior, reasoned action and planned behaivor assessment on HIV/AIDS among openly homosexual men. The respondents of the study were 50 openly homosexual students and professors. Snowball sampling was employed. This descriptive study utilized a standardized questionnaire divided into three parts formulated by Carey and Schroder, and Tlou &nbsp;wherein parametric measures and scoring stencils were employed. The study revealed that cognition of openly homosexual men about HIV/AIDS imposes the need for further awareness programs. Additionally, the health behavior of the respondents was shown to have poor to fair standings in terms of condom use, HIV test seeking, and monogamy data. Furthermore, reasoned action and planned behavior of the respondents’ behavioral index denotes that they had above-average behavioral control in relation to their subjective norm. Similarly, the data suggested that their social circles greatly affects their perception of HIV and their adherence on the proper method in terms of HIV testing, condom use and faithfulness to their partners. Evaluations of cognitive assessment and the health behavior index, reasoned action, and planned behavior were not linked while the relationship between the three variables was found to be concomitant. Further findings revealed that there is no significant relationship between cognitive assessment and health behavioral index (p=0.98). There was also no significant relationship found between cognitive assessment and reasoned action and planned behavior (behaviour intention (p=0.98), attitude (p=0.165), subjective norms (p=0.272) and perceived behaviour control (p=0.181). Health behaviour index on the other hand had a significant relationship with reasoned action and planned behaviour (behaviour intention (p=0.00), attitude (p=0.00), subjective norms (p=0.00) and perceived behaviour control (p=0.00)).</strong></p> Jericho O. Dongallo, Jr., Resty L. Picardo, Joan P. Bacarisas, Jake C. Napoles Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Philosophies of the mind and body <p><strong>This paper presents an analysis of Descartes and Ricouer’s philosophies which explores the nature and connection of the mind and body, in terms of their tenets, similarities, differences as well as their implication to the understanding of the metaparadigm in nursing. The first part of the paper gives a brief background on the philosophers and their philosophies focusing on Descartes' Dualism then comparing it to Ricouer's concept of “Selfhood”. Meanwhile, the second part of this paper deals with how these two philosophies affect our understanding of the metaparadigm in nursing (Fawcett, 1984) specifically, the concept of person, health, environment, and nursing. </strong></p> Rudolf Cymorr Kirby P. Martinez, Lourlyn P. Mansaguiton, Myrna A. Mercado, Iril I. Panes Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Fractality of global primary school dropout rates <p>The significant number of dropouts of children from their primary education has directly contributed to a country’s high percentage of illiteracy and the huge wastage of government funds. The present study looks into the prevalent causative factors of the dropout rates in the primary school education among nations. The method of fractal analysis helped probe deeper the exceptional cases that are still prevalent in some countries all over the world which serve as drivers of dropout rates in the primary level of education. Out of the 152 countries included in this study, at least seven of them cause its non-fractality. These countries that cause non-fractality indicate common and exceptional contributing factors in the primary education dropout rate phenomenon in the world. The use of fractal dimensions in investigating global primary school dropout rates showed that aside from the perennial factors that cause high dropout rates in the primary education level among countries i.e. economic, other prevalent causative factors come into play such as educational system, social status and social climate which nations all over the world must address if they are indeed serious to their commitment to the MDG on education. This fractality has showed that a significant number of dropout rates of children from their primary education have directly contributed to a country’s high percentage of illiteracy and the huge wastage of government funds.</p> Ramie L. Bulaybulay, Jr. Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Validation of the general and professional education areas of the college of education’s retention examination <p>Part of the goals of the College of Education of Tarlac State University is to be recognized by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) as one of the Centers of Excellence in Teacher Education Program in Region III and in the whole country and to be awarded level 4 program accreditation by the Accrediting Agencies of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines (AACCUP), Inc. In order to fulfill these noble targets, the college has embarked on the idea of implementing a retention policy to ensure excellent students and competent graduates who are considered to be highly motivated, committed, skilled, research-oriented and globally competitive imbued with positive values. In this regard, this study was conceptualized to validate initially the College Retention Examination (CRE) particularly the subject areas on General Education and Professional Education using content and face validity, item analysis and reliability coefficient. The validation process was a big step to ensuring quality instruction and applying a thorough assessment of learning. The validated CRE would pave the way towards sustaining the standards set by the CHED, AACCUP and other quality assurance agencies in the country as well as international organizations.</p> Niño B. Corpuz, Sheila Marie O. David, Jeanette P. Mendoza, Jayson Y. Punzalan Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Family, individual, community and school profile analysis of learners at risk of dropping out in Cebu <p>Dropping out, an essential indicator to the schools’ performance, is a serious educational problem all over the world. Thus, an investigation on the possible contribution of Family, Individual, Community and School (FICS) related factors to a Learner at Risk of Dropping out (LARDO) was done to aid identification and immediate remediation of Junior High School Learners in a Division in Cebu, Philippines for the School Year 2016-2017. Logistic regression analysis was performed to create a model to predict the probability of being a learner at risk. It showed increase of prediction power from 50% to 88% as the independent variables were entered. The following variables were found significant:&nbsp; (a) gender; (b) deceased father; (c) cyber situation; (d) broken family; (e) inferiority complex; (f) child labor; and (g) lack of community support. Disturbing gender equity issues were evident in the results with increased likelihood for male students of being a LARDO. An intervention plan was crafted to assist schools in the implementation of the Drop Out Reduction Program (DORP). Salient features of the intervention program included the establishment of official forms for tracking LARDOs, a LARDO tendency worksheet based on the model and the establishment of policies that will strengthen LARDO early warning systems. Level of identification was also found to be at minimal in some schools which indicated difficulty of identification needing pertinent training in the intervention program. The results have important implications in the multi-dimensional nature of the dropout problem. The scope of its complexity extends beyond the established school systems. Hence, a multi-dimensional approach should be adapted.</p> Jessica T. Trivino, Benjamin D. Tiongzon, Leviticus M. Barazon, Jr., Edsel P. Inocian Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Bridges of hope <p>This study explores the stories of students who had stopped formal schooling and experienced being in the Alternative Learning System (ALS), which is another form of education that is not commonly taken, for those who want to get back into the educational system. Using Narrative Inquiry, specifically Labov and Waletzky’s six-part narrative analysis for the construction (The Abstract, Orientation, Complicating Action, Evaluation, Resolution, and Coda), seven (7) informants were interviewed about their stories and experiences throughout the entirety of their academic pursuit with ALS. Five (5) main plots emerged from the interviews, namely: (a) “The Wanderer’s Quandary”; (b) “The Fork at the End of the Road”; (c) “The Path Less Traveled”; (d) “The Unceasing River”; and (e) “The Open Field.” Each main plot has corresponding subplots for each informant. The findings revealed that the experience of being an ALS student is not easy. Being in a different form of education, different from what society usually pursues, comes stigma. Strong will and perseverance had lead these people to go through with ALS. It became their bridge of hope to a second chance towards their pursuit through education.</p> Tiffany Nadine S. Lim, Clarisse Mae L. Monte de Ramos, Aljun C. Marikit, Patricia Mae Gabaca, Johnny J. Yao, Jr. Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Managing cooling comfort at homes and offices <p>People today experience coolness through the use technology (air conditioners) that produces cooling comfort at homes, at offices and even in cars and buses. More importantly, a simple homeowner needs to select an air conditioner that matches the size of a room to install it in, in order to make full use of its capacity or choose to pay more without following the intention of learning the basics of care and maintenance of the unit. The study is then conducted to assess setting up the cooling capacity needed for a particular room size, where to place the unit and what must be done in order to maintain the unit in good operating condition. The study gathers such idea from the office personnel, homeowners (includes lodgers, bed spacers, and transients) taken purposively at random (non-probability sampling procedure using quota). Customarily, people experiencing cooling comfort has the inner motive to work productively and efficiently. The study finds that for most homeowners learned the cooling capacity of a space through a friend and placing it on window line upper part is the common sight for most window type package air conditioners with at most five (5) occupants. The office personnel, on the other hand, stated that the units were provided by the owner of the building when moving in seeing it mounted on floors, walls or ceiling. The prevailing conditions on people’s awareness on the practices are limited to what was usually heard from the store attendant upon buying the air conditioners. Information contained on the sheet provided upon receipt of the unit were left unscanned and unattended to. These practices form the basis for recommendations leading to the attainment of experiencing cooling comfort at lower cost.</p> Nolasco K. Malabago, Dindo M. Chin, Claro M. Celerio Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Occupational ergonomics in the library workplace <p>Ergonomics is defined as the study of the interaction between people and machines and the factors that affect the interaction Occupational Safety and Health Administration. This study assessed the occupational ergonomics of the selected academic libraries in Cebu City, Philippines. As revealed, majority of the libraries understudy are&nbsp; practically ergonomically design, however they had poor percentage of the following: not one of the librarians had document holder and wrist/palm rest, majority do not use armrest when performing computer task and almost all librarians did not have a stable feet rest on the floor. The top five (5) ergonomic symptoms felt by the respondents were pain in neck, headache, pain in wrist and numbness in the hands. There is no significant correlation between the librarians’ height and weight and their level of awareness of ergonomics on health status. There is no significant relationship between the librarians’ level of awareness of ergonomics on health status and ergonomics. Furthermore, level of awareness of ergonomics on health status is not a determinant factor on the librarians’ experience on ergonomic symptoms.</p> Ellen M. Labajo Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Communication competence on Facebook <p>Social media has become part of many people’s way of life. One of them most popular social media sites is Facebook which allows them to establish and maintain connectivity worldwide. One aspect of Facebook users that has not yet been explored much as a subject of investigation is communication competence. This descriptive-comparative study was conducted to determine the perceived communication competence on Facebook of the select students of University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines (USTP). Stratified random sampling was used to determine a sample size of 80 students. Validated survey questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. The data were analyzed using mean, percentage and standard deviation to describe the variables investigated in the study such as frequency and level of the students’ exposure on Facebook, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the significant difference of communication competence sub-skills among the students. The findings show that most of the respondents were highly competent communicators in certain sub-skills while the rest were relatively competent in other sub-skills. Overall, the respondents need to acquire—or rather, holistically develop—their communication competence which combines the sub-skills on “knowing what to say” and “knowing how to communicate”.</p> Ismael N. Talili, Leslie Mark L. Martirez, Bryan A. Malaque, Aileen A. Bailado Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Factors that influence resorts’ development in the Municipality of Dauin, Philippines <p>It is essential to adapt and improve tourism supply in order to respond to new tourist demand dynamics. This study tries to find out the factors that influence resorts development in Municipality of Dauin, Negros Oriental using a descriptive survey. A researcher-made survey questionnaire was administered to twenty-two (22) registered resort operators, as recorded in the Municipal Treasurer’s Office. Specifically, the study aimed to identify the factors that influence resorts development in terms of recreational activities, resting and relaxation, personal values, social experiences, and enriching and learning experiences. Data were collected mainly from registered resort businesses, after which results were tabulated and analyzed.The findings show that resorts development has indeed made a significant impact on the tourism trade in the municipality. Recreational activities were the highest factor that contributed to the increased number of resorts in the area. This implies that tourists visit the resorts largely for recreation such as outdoor activities, sports, entertainment, fun, and doing something out of the ordinary.</p> Millard Vaughn Tubog, Ryan O. Tayco Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Leadership, management and conflict management styles among nurse middle managers <p>The study utilized a correlational, quantitative design where nurse managers and staff nurses were made to answer an adapted questionnaire. The study used complete enumeration with inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study was conducted in Talisay District Hospital to assess the styles on leadership, management and conflict management and their correlation. Findings revealed that the most common leadership style is democratic while for management style is the mixed or the transitional style and collaborating for conflict management style. Authoritative leaders utilized the mixed or transitional management style and the collaborating conflict managing style. Democratic leaders utilized the mixed or transitional management style and the collaborating conflict management style. Laissez-faire leaders utilized the mixed or transitional management style and the collaborating conflict management style. A pattern can be seen that, in all types of leadership, be it authoritative, democratic or laissez-faire, the mixed or transitional management style is common. Further, the most common conflict management utilized is the collaborating style. Thus, it can be inferred that different leaders utilize a mixed or transitional management style and that when they are in conflict, they manage them through the collaborative conflict management style. There was no noteworthy relationship between the styles on conflict management and leadership styles, amongst styles on conflict management and management and lastly, amongst styles on leadership and management.</p> Mara Angustia E. Rubio, Resty L. Picardo Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Species diversity and distribution of mangrove vegetation in Moalboal, Cebu Island, Philippines <p>This study identifies the diversity and distribution of mangrove species in Moalboal, Cebu, Philippines. Diversity and distribution assessment were conducted through non-experimental descriptive research design. The findings of the study revealed that mangrove vegetation in Moalboal is deteriorating and has continued to degrade over time. Species diversity was also found to be very low, with the Shannon-Weiner Index (H’) registering coefficients ranging from 0.8854 to 1.2268 for the various areas in Moalboal. There were only four species belonging to three families of mangroves identified, of which <em>Sonneratia alba</em> was determined to be the most dominant. With these results, rehabilitation and protection of mangrove vegetation is recommended to the local management and to ensure the strict implementation, protection and conservation of mangrove management in the studied areas. There is a need to reforest the areas with emphasis on repopulating disappearing species to avoid further degradation. It is further recommended to conduct more research on the implementation of the conservation activities and its effect on the abundance of the mangroves in the area. The study of ecological adaptation of mangroves, relative density, frequency and relative dominance must be undertaken to serve as important bases in community-based management programs.</p> Anna Lou C. Cabuenas, Almira May F. Aunzo, Benveinido M. Reducto Copyright (c) 2017 University of the Visayas Mon, 18 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000